5 More Protestant scholars prove the Papacy

Updated: Jan 1


By Luke Lancaster


This article continues quoting Protestant Bible scholars who argue that St. Peter held the same type of keys that the Prime Minister of the Davidic Kingdom held. To see the previous article to this, click here.

6. Richard B. Gardner


The Brethren/Mennonite commentator says,

"The image of the keys likely comes from an oracle in Isaiah, which speaks of the installation of a new majordomo or steward in Hezekiah's palace."


See more in Richard Gardner, Matthew: Believers Church Bible Commentary, (Harrisonburg, VA: Herald Press, 1991), 248.


7. Joachim Jeremias


A Lutheran commentator says,


“Materially, then, the keys of the kingdom of God are not different from the key of David [Is. 22:22]…when Jesus is said to hold the keys of death and Hades (Rev. 1:18) or the key of David (3:7), this means that He is, not the doorkeeper, but the Lord of the world of the dead and the palace of God…handing over the keys implies appointment to full authority. He who has the keys has on the one side control, e.g., over the council chamber or treasury, cf. Mt. 13:52, and on the other the power to allow or forbid entry, cf. Rev. 3:7.”


See more in J. Jeremias, “Kleis,” in ed., Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 3, (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1968), 749-750.


8. Eduard Schweizer


A Presbyterian/Reformed commentator says,


“He is thus not the gatekeeper of heaven, but the steward of the Kingdom of heaven upon earth.”


Eduard Schweizer, The Good News According to Matthew, (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1975), 343.


9. D. Guthrie and others Commentators


Guthrie and a few other Commentators say,


“The keys of the kingdom of heaven: the phrase [from Matthew 16:19] is almost certainly based on Is. 22:22 where Shebna the steward is displaced by Eliakim and his authority transferred to him.”


D. Guthrie and others, The New Bible Commentary, (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1953) [reprinted by Inter-Varsity Press], 837.


10. George Buttrick and other Commentators


These Protestant Bible commentators say,


“The keys of the kingdom would be committed to the chief steward in the royal household and with them goes plenary authority. In Isa. 22:22 the key of the house of David is promised to Eliakim. According to Paul, Jesus is the only foundation (1 Cor. 3:11), and in Rev. 1:18; 3:7, Jesus possesses the key of David and the keys of death and Hades. But in this passage [Matthew 16:19] Peter is made the foundation (cf. Eph. 2:20, where the Christian apostles and prophets are the foundation and Christ is the cornerstone) and holds the keys.”


George Buttrick and others, eds., The Interpreter’s Bible, (New York: Abingdon, 1951), 453.